A Penny for Your Thoughts ― Six Billion for Your Vote

January 22, 2013

Deborra Ann Low

$6 billion was blown on the 2012 election cycle. Along with that expense comes one overall goal ― the legitimacy of the state. And even with that whopping bill, non-voters out-numbered those who voted for the “winner” by 27 million. Whenever voters realize that it’s not a matter of reforming the state but a matter of repudiating the state, that’s when an election boycott movement can be effective.

Apathy comes when folks blame themselves for not being able to change a system that was, from its inception, established as a tyranny and purely a mockery of democracy ― a charade that has existed for nearly 230 years. But, while it’s easy not to vote, what’s not easy is organizing all the reasons for not voting and bringing them together as a viable non-violent movement in dissent of the state ― a refusal to consent to tyranny.

What must happen, I believe, is the continual dislodging of political operative lies that merely condone the government by leaning heavily on reforms that merely backslide dissidence into ineffective, apathetic, and counterrevolutionary instruments co-opted by statists who have no intention of defending democracy or liberty and justice for all.

In my opinion though, faithful voters should not be unfairly blamed for falling for the pack of lies ― that somehow voting for reforms can effectively cause even an inherently adverse system to right itself eventually even though that eventuality obviously never comes. People always want to remain hopeful ― especially those who accept minuscule victories as a sign that David is getting closer to slewing Goliath.

Instead, I believe the burden falls upon election boycott advocates to make the case for voters to begin to responsibly assess the damage that has been done to them by their continued participation in this government’s tyrannical electoral system and the inhumane and genocidal policies it attempts to legitimize in their name.

Once people become aware that their vote for a “lesser evil” in this “winner-take-all” system, is essentially a vote against themselves and a vote for the corporatist perpetrators of global genocide, then I believe it becomes impossible for anyone to continue voting without making a conscious decision to condone the evil they say they oppose. Once voters have made the undeniable moral connection between their vote and the actions the government takes in their name, they and the government they endorse with their votes, cannot escape responsibility for their actions, even if the governed masses cannot hold them accountable under voter-enabled systemic corruption. In short, it is impossible to dissent against tyranny by giving it your consent. As Audre Lord put it:

“It is learning how to stand alone, unpopular and sometimes reviled, and how to make common cause with those others identified as outside the structures in order to define and seek a world in which we can all flourish. It is learning how to take our differences and make them strengths. For the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house. They may allow us temporarily to beat him at his own game, but they will never enable us to bring about genuine change.”

In a fully functioning democracy, an election boycott has no meaning. In fact, it could have a serious detrimental effect, because voting is obviously the focal point of a truly democratic system.  Yet, that is the heart of the problem in the US. We have never had a democratic government ― ever. Therefore, across the board boycotting of the electoral system is not only justifiable, it may be the only effective, non-violent way to repudiate a form of government wherein absolute power is not vested in the people.

As evidenced by the multibillion dollar tab generated by the most recent election cycle farce, wherein non-voters still out-numbered the total votes cast for the winner by 12.4%, this outrageously wasteful expense, (while people are forced to suffer the consequences of austerity measures and are told to “share the sacrifice” for no reason other than the avarice of the ruling class), points to one important conclusion. The sociocentric ruling class fully recognizes that effective election boycotts have a dramatic impact on state legitimacy, even if they have no effect on election outcomes.

If the state recognizes the utmost importance of twisting our arms or buying our votes (no matter for whom or for what our ballots are cast), why should we ever underestimate the full impact of a successful election boycott?  Why consent to tyranny? Repudiate the state!



Anarchy Is Not Chaos, Peace Is Not Chaos

January 20, 2013

Originally posted on January 17, 2013 on “Fubar and Grill”

By Mark E. Smith

I knew nothing about the Spanish revolution until recently, but reading some books has been very enlightening. Here’s a portion from a chapter called “The Clandestine Revolution,” in the book Durruti in the Spanish Revolution by Abel Paz, that I’ve just finished reading–this happened when the anarchist Durruti, who never accepted any rank or acknowledged being a leader in any way, was leading a column against the government forces:


While traveling from Bujaraloz to Barcelona, Durruti witnessed the change that the revolution had made both in people and circumstances. The whirlwind of the first days of the battle had passed and the peasants and workers were now focused on changing their ways of life and creating new social relationships.The people were still armed and guarded the entrances of their villages. There was no trace of Assault or Civil Guards at these checkpoints: it was the proletarians who defended the revolutionary order.

Durruti stopped his car at a checkpoint at a town in the Lerida province. He presented himself as a militiaman leaving the front for the rearguard and requested gasoline for his vehicle. By doing this he wanted to see how the peasants’ behavior had changed in that small town of some three thousand residents. A militiaman told him that he should speak to the town Committee in the old mayor’s office. They’d give him the “OK” that he needed to fill his car with gas.

Durruti crossed the town’s main square. It was around noon. The square was empty except for some women leaving the church with a basket of goods. Durruti asked them how to get to the Committee and also if mass was being officiated in the church.

“No, no,”they responded. “There’s no priest. The priest is working in the field with the other men. Kill him? Why kill him? He isn’t dangerous. He even talks about going to live with a town girl. Besides, he’s very happy with everything that is happening.”

“But the church is right there,” said Durruti, while pointing.

“Ah, yes,the church. Why destroy it? The statues were removed and burned in the square.God no longer exists. He’s been expelled from here. And, since God doesn’t exist, the assembly decided to replace the word ‘adios’ [with God] with ‘salud’ [cheers]. The Cooperative now occupies the church and, because everything is collectivized, it supplies the town.”

Durruti came across an elderly man when he entered what was once the mayor’s office. It was the town’s former schoolteacher, who had been replaced by a young teacher from Lerida three months earlier. The old man had been inactive during those months but, when the revolution broke out, he volunteered to look after the town’s administrative needs and assure the continued operation of the Town Committee. The other members of the Committee were working in the fields. They gathered at nightfall to discuss pressing matters that had come up during the day or tasks that they needed to accomplish the next day. At the time, they had to focus on taking in the harvest. Since the town’s young people had volunteered to go fight on the front, the remaining residents had to do the work.

“But don’t think,” the retired teacher said, “that the work weighs on anyone. We work for ourselves now, for everyone.”

Durruti asked him how they had selected the members of the Committee. Durruti’s straightforward and simple air inspired the teacher’s trust, who took him as one of the many curious militiamen from the city who wanted to see what was happening in the towns.

“We held a town assembly,” he said, “and considered everyone’s abilities and also their conduct before the revolution. That’s how we appointed the Committee.”

“And what about the political parties?” Durruti said.

“Parties?There are some old Republicans like myself and some Socialists too; but no, the political parties haven’t played any role. During our assembly, we considered a person’s ability and conduct and appointed those who seemed best to us. It was no more complicated than that. The Committee represents the people and it’s to the people that it has to answer.”

Durruti asked about the parties again.

“The parties?” the teacher replied, intrigued by his insistence. “Why do we need political parties? You work to eat and eat if you work. Party politics don’t sow wheat, gather olives, or tan animal hides. No, our problems are collective and we have to solve them collectively. Politics divides and our town wants to be united, in total community.”

“By all appearances, everyone is happy here. But what about the old landowners?”Durruti inquired.

“They aren’t happy,” the teacher responded. “They don’t say so outright, because they’re afraid, but you can see it on their faces. Some have joined the community, others have chosen what we now call ‘individualism.’ They’ve kept their land but have to cultivate it themselves, because the exploitation of man by man no longer exists here, and so they won’t find any employees.”

“But what happens if they can’t cultivate their land themselves?”

“That simply shows that they have too much land and the town takes what they can’t tend to. Leaving the land uncultivated would be an attack on all of us.”

Durruti said goodbye to the teacher, and when he returned to the checkpoint, the workers on guard asked him if he’d received the gasoline that he needed. He told them yes with a smile and threw them a “Salud!” from the car as he took off for Barcelona.


As they did in Germany, the Communists in Spain paved the way for fascism by killing or co-opting the anarchists along with anyone else who opposed governmental militarism. The Communists insisted that organization was necessary in order to defeat fascism. But the unorganized anarchists had been defeating fascism, and once the Communists took over, fascism prevailed. The Communists wanted to”fight fascism” by using the very military discipline that is the essence of fascism, and fascism, particularly when it is playing fascism’s game by fascism’s rules, can never defeat fascism.

Israel’s Anti-Black Pogrom

January 7, 2013

Justin Raimondo

by Justin RaimondoAntiwar.com

January 07, 2013

A screaming mob of whites gathers in a public square, their placards proclaiming their hatred of blacks, their shouts of “N—-r!” reverberating and bouncing off the walls of nearby shops and homes like the ominous thunder of a coming storm. They loot shops that cater to blacks, and a prominent elected official is at the head of the mob, declaring that blacks are “a cancer” that must be eradicated.

Mississippi in the Sixties? A neo-Nazi rally? A Klan conclave?

No, it’s a recent scene in southern Tel Aviv, Israel, where Likud member of the Knesset Miri Regev – a former IDF spokesperson and prominent political figure – led a well-organized march of ultra-nationalists demanding the expulsion of all blacks from Israel. Just look at the ugliness of these people – listen to them screaming “White Power”! And here are the Jewish Hitlers, proclaiming their desire to set up a “Jewish monarchy.” A few extremists? No. Israel’s Interior Minister has pledged to ship all blacks back to Africa, and the issue of the African refugees has become the major issue in Israel’s election campaign.

Rising ultra-nationalist star Naftali Bennett, of the religious fundamentalist “Jewish Home” party, is demanding their immediate expulsion in order to preserve the “purity” of the Jewish state. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, for his part, has pledged to get rid of the Africans in short order, and ordered the construction of a “security fence” bordering the Sinai, where most of the refugees turn up seeking asylum from Africa’s wars.

They come from Sudan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, for the most part, victims of the constant conflict that has made East Africa a bloody battlefield for many years. As Israel has made a concerted effort to boost arms sales to African nations, including Ethiopia, where many of the refugees come from, the influx can be seen as blowback – otherwise known as karma.

Israel has a longstanding military connection to Ethiopia: ever since the 1970s, when the genocidal Derg took power in Addis Ababa, Israel has been intimately involved with the Ethiopian military, providing training, weapons, advanced aircraft, and direct subsidies, which the government used to battle regional insurgents. The main target was the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF), which fought a bitter 30-year war of independence against the Ethiopians. Israel’s main interest in this, aside from the arms sales, was to secure control over Eritrea’s strategically important Red Sea shoreline. In 1991, Eritrea finally won its independence, yet there was but a short breather before the two sides started up again. The Israeli arms pipeline has fueled the conflict, along with generous US aid to the late Ethiopian tyrant Meles Zenawi, so beloved by Susan Rice.

There are 20,000 of these “infiltrators,” as the anti-African demagogues call them, and that they have showed up on Israel’s doorstep is not just karmic, is it also geographic: Israel is the closest country with any promise of providing them with work, and they are often invited in by Israeli employers, who cannot find enough people to do menial jobs. Israel’s growing ultra-nationalist movement finds in them a convenient target, and a politically promising issue. Violence against the refugees is on the upswing: last year, 20-year-old Haim Mula was arrested for firebombing an orphanage for very young African children: he got off practically scot-free with a three-month plea bargained sentence.

Far from being considered a criminal and a pariah, young Haim might well run for the Knesset – because he has the Israeli people with him, particularly the young people who are flocking to the banner of “Jewish Home.”

This is what is so disturbing about recent events in Israel, where outright anti-Arab racism has long been tolerated and even encouraged by the government and religious authorities. Instead of denouncing and isolating the anti-black hate-mongers, Israel’s elites are defending and succoring them. A recent declaration initiated by Professor Rafael Medoff, director of the David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies in Washington, D.C., and Professor Yehuda Bauer of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, calls for “a world solution for a world problem.”

In other words: it’s not our problem. Medoff says other countries”have more room, and they have more resources. Israel has been taking a beating in the international press for how it treats the refugees, but never has there been any suggestion in these reports that maybe other countries should be lending a hand.”

Gee, that’s funny, but the US has never asked for help from other countries in dealing with the millions of political and economic refugees who have sought asylum and work here. Neither have the small European countries which today find themselves playing host to numerous migrants from less fortunate areas of the world. Perhaps because to do so would be in somewhat dubious taste – but apparently such considerations don’t come into play where Israel’s professional apologists are concerned. And naturally we do not hear one word out of their mouths about the orgy of hate the African presence in Israel has aroused – not only do they not condemn it, they don’t even mention it.

To top it off, Messrs Medoff and Bauer have named their initiative, which takes the form of a petition to the world’s governments, “The Evian Declaration,” timing it to “coincide with the 75th anniversary of the Evian conference, when nations around the world turned their back on Europe’s Jewish refugees,” as Ha’aretz put it.

The Evian Conference was called in the summer of 1938, as Hitler’s assault on the Jews took on horrific dimensions and they tried desperately to flee. While the conference did little to provide these refugees with realistic options, US and British immigration quotas were somewhat relaxed, with some others following suit (the Dominican Republic offered to take 100,000, but only 800 actually went). However, the refugee problem was on such a large scale that this hardly made a dent.

For Medoff and Bauer to invoke the Evian episode in this context simply underscores the tone-deafness of Israel’s apologists: by effectively saying it is “everyone’s problem” – and no one’s – they are merely replicating the tragedy of that affair.

Israel was itself conceived as a home for the homeless, a refuge for those who had been refugees in their own lands and driven into exile by war and the world’s animus. How they can now turn around and say “Not our problem” defies explanation. That they dare to say it out loud is proof – if more were needed – that Israeli society has gone more than a little crazy.

After all, these two distinguished professors are liberals – they aren’t joining the neo-Kahanists in the streets, firebombing orphanages and calling for “N—–s Out!” They are merely trying to cover for them, to make the world avert its eyes as hate explodes like a ripe boil on the Israeli body politic, exuding its poisons into the organs the Jewish state.

It’s the world’s problem? No, it isn’t. The hate that is erupting in the Jewish state is a Jewish problem, one that has yet to be acknowledged, let alone confronted, by Jewish leaders worldwide. I have not heard a single word about this from the so-called “Anti-Defamation League,” and its usually vociferous chief honcho, Abe Foxman, who seems to have an opinion about anything and everything, but is strangely silent on the defamation of Africans in Israel. As blacks in Israel find themselves beset by racist mobs, where is the American Jewish Committee, and all the other organizations that were important allies of the early black civil rights movement in this country – where are they now that the Bull Connors and the George Wallaces are Israeli?

They’re too busy trying to scuttle the nomination of Chuck Hagel to head up the Department of Defense to bother with speaking to the deepest values of the Jewish people and speaking out against a monstrous injustice. They’re too busy retailing the most contemptible smears against a patriotic American, who refuses to kowtow to a powerful lobby, to even acknowledge that crimes are being committed in their name and with our tax dollars. Even as I write this, detention camps – camps! – are being built with US “foreign aid” taxpayer dollars to house the “infiltrators” so they can be shipped back to Africa, often to a certain death.

It sickens me to write this. To gaze on an hypocrisy so immense, so brazen, so antithetical to everything the Jewish people have stood for historically, and to say nothing – the enormity of this kind of betrayal is simply breathtaking.

I have just one thing to say to Abe Foxman, and all the self-appointed Jewish “leaders” who arrogate to themselves the prerogative of vetting US government officials – when are you going to start vetting Israeli government officials as they whip up racist hysteria and carry out an anti-African pogrom?

I can answer this question for myself, because the answer is: never. It isn’t considered kosher to air the Jewish state’s dirty laundry in public. There is a big problem with this strategy, however: sooner or later the stench gets so bad that one can’t help but smell it.

Of course the precedent for all this is the virulent anti-Arab racism now pervasive in Israeli society, as a recent survey showed. To take just one rather vivid example: the Beitar football team has become a rallying point for swarming ultra-nationalist thugs, who beat up Israeli Arabs and engage in regular provocations against anyone deemed “alien” to the Jewish character of the state. In March of last year hundreds of them went on a rampage at a shopping mall in Jerusalem, beating Arab men, women, and children, and destroying Arab stores. Not a single arrest was made, nor was anybody charged. It’s open season on non-Jews in Israel, and no one should be surprised that blacks are now the target.

Once the American people wake up to what is going on, the much-touted support for Israel claimed by its partisans in this country will evaporate. That’s one reason why these same Jewish mis-“leaders” who are staying silent about the anti-African campaign are now voicing their “concern” that Al Jazeera, the Arab-based television network, will take over the niche once occupied by Al Gore’s “Current TV.” The Arab network has been regularly exposing the rising tide of anti-African hate now at the epicenter of Israeli politics, as well as more familiar depredations aimed at the Palestinians. The last thing the Israel lobby wants is footage of the Israeli equivalent of the KKK on American national television.

How will members of the congressional Black Caucus justify voting for billions in aid to Israel in the face of live news reports of howling Israeli mobs screaming hatred for Africans? Can the country that elected Barack Obama continue to have a “special relationship” with a nation that has turned into the Middle East equivalent of Klan Kountry? I think not.

The fatal blow to the Jewish state, however, will be the rupturing of its relationship with American Jewry, which, in spite of the vociferous dissent of some noisome neoconservatives, has a long tradition of liberalism. This noble legacy of tolerance and support for the underdog is now coming into open conflict with the newer tradition of unconditional support to the Israeli government of the moment – and, by their silence, the leaders of major Jewish organizations hope the problem will be swept under the rug, and somehow go away.

This is a very big mistake. Israeli society is going over a cliff, and the Jewish state’s political class is hastening rather than impeding the slide into a moral abyss. There is no way to cover up this crisis, because it has very visible political – and human – consequences. We are seeing this being played out in the Israeli election campaign, where the crazies are gaining momentum and sanity is in very short supply.

How many young American and European Jews will want to make aliyah to a country where blacks are demonized as disease-ridden criminals and automatically deported? How many Jews will want to express their solidarity with a Jewish state where racism is acceptable and the bullied have turned into the bullies? My guess: not many.


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Here is the link for buying the second edition of my 1993 book, Reclaiming the American Right: The Lost Legacy of the Conservative Movement, with an Introduction by Prof. George W. Carey, a Forward by Patrick J. Buchanan, and critical essays by Scott Richert and David Gordon.

Buy my biography of the great libertarian thinker, An Enemy of the State: The Life of Murray N. Rothbard, here.

Read more by Justin Raimondo

Article printed from Antiwar.com Original: http://original.antiwar.com

South Dakota Retaliates Against Whistleblowers: Child Abuse Of Native American Teens By Foster Parent

January 6, 2013
Source:  Reposted email from Lakota People’s Law Project

January 3, 2013

Next Monday, January 7, two South Dakota state employees who risked their jobs to punish a rapist of a Lakota foster girl are being put on trial for crimes they didn’t commit. It’s part of an effort by state authorities to prevent anyone from exposing corruption at the Department of Social Services.

Here’s the background on the trial: last year, Brandon Taliaferro and Shirley Schwab—an assistant state attorney and court-appointed child advocate, respectively—discovered that two teenage Lakota foster sisters in Aberdeen, SD were being sexually abused by their adoptive parent, Richard Mette. Brandon and Shirley encouraged the girls to tell the truth about the abuse, and now Richard Mette is serving a 15-year prison sentence for child rape.

As in so many cases, the girls are Lakota children who were taken from their homes by the state and placed in non-Native foster care instead of with family members—all in direct violation of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA).

After an NPR report in October 2011 exposed rampant violations of ICWA by South Dakota’s Department of Social Services (DSS), state authorities responded by attacking critics from within. That’s the real reason that Brandon and Shirley are being put on trial. They uncovered evidence that the Lakota girls were being abused and saw first hand that DSS refused to investigate. When they accused the state of discriminating against Lakota children and families, the state charged them with “unauthorized disclosure of confidential information” and “witness tampering.”

Will you help us get media and observers to the trial next Monday by forwarding this message to your networks? And will you pressure the House Committee on Natural Resources (Indian Affairs) to get involved by sending a short note in your own words to Rep. Ben Lujan (D-NM) here: Fifth Circuit Superior Court of South Dakota (Be sure to include the case #: CR 10-11-13).

Our executive staff will be present at the trial, along with other “Official Observers.” Please join us if you can!

WHEN:  Monday, January 7th at 9:00 AM?
WHERE:  5th Circuit Court, 101 SE 1st Ave in Aberdeen, SD?

Pilamaya! (Thank you)

The Lakota People’s Law Project Organizing Team

PS: To learn more about the Mette sexual abuse scandal, see these two published articles:

1) 100 Reporters
2) Lakota People’s Law Project Special Report  

Let Them Eat “Capitalist Carrot” Cake

December 23, 2012

Deborra Ann Low

Sure, the Republican agenda is anti-labor but, they’re certainly not alone. Union membership in this country is dwindling but, it’s not just because of the Republican haters. Republicans are simply, and literally, capitalizing on the frustration workers have with unions in general.

Workers don’t refuse to join a labor union just because of something they heard or didn’t hear about unions, they refuse to join unions because they no longer feel empowered by them.  Most unions in this country have turned their backs on solidarity and direct action unionism, and have embraced political party allegiance and electoral solutions instead. In other words, they’re waiting for candidates and legislation to bring them the tiny piece of capitalist heaven they will never have, because the entire political system is rigged against them — having been bought and paid for by the wealthy ruling class.

The fact that union members resent their fellow workers who enjoy whatever benefits labor unions have fought hard for, but who still refuse to join a union or have the gall to resent having to pay their “fair share,” is just another example of how workers are constantly pitted against each other.

Most members of the working poor have NEVER been in the middle class, yet they are still asked to help rebuild it.  And for whom? For those who are just now beginning to feel a slight sting of what the poor have always felt?

The working poor don’t believe in the “American Dream,” because they’ve long since discovered it for the mirage it really is — the capitalist carrot they’ve been forced to chase but never get.  The working poor have nothing much in common with the middle class, so asking them to help rebuild the “American Dream” does nothing to build solidarity but, instead it builds resentment.  It’s asking the working poor to accept the same bald-faced lie — that carrying those above them will somehow gain them access into the exclusive middle class.

Many workers see unions as just another spigot tapping into what they already have too little of – resources.  The stale argument that all workers need do is keep pouring all their energy and dollars into a corrupt electoral system to fend off all that’s being thrown at them by corporate fascists is a cruel but definitely not unusual punishment.  The ruling class has more than enough resources to watch the entire proletariat get buried in their continuous failed attempts to fight off the raging fire of capitalist oppression with working class squirt guns.  It’s not and never has been a fair fight.

And what’s being done about this problem?  Union leadership continues to ask the working poor to dig even deeper and give even more of their money and volunteer time in non-stop damage control efforts. Without so much as a moral flinch, they encourage workers to keep on fighting this mock David and Goliath story where Goliath is never slain no matter how good their slingshot-aim.

When are workers going to stop relying on this corrupt electoral system — where Goliath’s foot keeps kicking their backsides and turning them into whining beggars in a deliberately rigged system that has never cared about, let alone felt their pain?

December 17, 2012

Excellent essay, Lara! War profiteering allows trillions of dollars to be channeled into slaughtering human beings but, when it comes to mental health care (or anything else that helps people live safer, healthier lives) we simply can’t afford it. In fact, if we want minimal human services, then the working class must suffer austerity measures to get them. Why? Because you can’t make any money by helping people and capitalism cares only about the profits of the extremely wealthy, not the welfare of everyone else.

Random Thoughts on Everything & Nothing

This article has been published on Huffington Post. See it here.

I’ve read multiple articles since the shootings last week, both in my hometown and the deadly assault on school children in Connecticut. I’ve read a sadly moving article on mental health, articles on angry young men, articles on angry white men, articles on angry men of every color, articles on why the second amendment allows us to bear arms, and articles on why it doesn’t.  I’ve read articles lamenting the deaths of children overseas because of US military violence, crying out against the hypocrisy of the president’s tears for US children, while seemingly ignoring those of the countries we invade. It seems all I have done this entire weekend is read about this tragedy, its victims, its causes, and why these tragedies continue.

Nowhere in any of it have I seen anyone addressing the issue of profits…

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Why I’m a Funnel Web

December 13, 2012

Powerful, Lara.

Random Thoughts on Everything & Nothing

I don’t text and drive because if I died, the tenuous little family I have would splinter apart and lose not just me, but one another. There is nothing here holding us together except me. Here is how my funeral would be: my small number of friends (who aren’t friends with each other so who knows how some of them would even find out), my parents, and my sister’s family. There would be no looming aunts or uncles or cousins who would pull my daughters aside and tell them to hold on to each other because they are all the other has anymore. The consequence of being an immoral and wanton woman who has not had a traditional family for herself (not because it isn’t what I wanted, but because I made choices in partners that were not the best for me), is that I have two children from two…

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